The spirituality of space exploration as self-exploration. Since the dawn of recorded history, humanity has been mesmerized by Earth’s place in the cosmos. A key impediment to change in underlying economic philosophy is that there are two worlds of parallel rationality, each maximizing utility according to their own decision strategy. However, although it represents a change in behaviour, the question of underlying motivation necessarily remains. Sometimes, however, it is not enough. Human interaction necessarily causes mutual influence between the interacting parties, though that influence may be very small (Johnson, 2015). In the case of the Global Financial Crisis, it appears that such an ethical breakdown happened in the financial industry. Vol.09 No.07(2018), Article ID:85900,12 pages overview effect: everything they had ever known and loved was on that tiny blue marble, hanging peacefully in space. Codes have also evolved over time so that what is considered ethical now might have been considered wrong in the past and vice versa. But, as discussed, there are other ways to learn from it. The cost of a poor childhood education is a mental barrier. (Consider also the Whiskey Rebellion in the early United States as one example in which the question of taxation erupted into conflict.) Many such codes evolve from religion and the influence of religious organisations (Evensky, 1998). The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics. Internalizing that material can be deepened through processes such as reflective journaling (Lew & Schmidt, 2011). Indeed, ethics courses in business and finance programmes are on the rise. While psychology and sociology both study similar topics, they are looking at these questions from different perspectives. The ability of others to provide for themselves, for example, should not be seen as a threat to one’s own ability to provide for one’s self. Although principles of morality may vary in time and space, there are some common core elements, some of which relate to property rights (Levine, 2005). When the stimulus is removed, learning may or may not have taken place. In an interesting twist, the problems of an economic crisis can actually lead to ethical problems (Jaffe & Tsimerman, 2011). Not only did a lapse in integrity in the industry reach pandemic levels, it appeared that members of the industry collaborated in that lapse in integrity (Hawtrey & Johnson, 2010). Effect The Overview. As such, it is only experienced in its pure form by astronauts/cosmonauts. Otherwise simple game theory points to overwhelming incentives that lead to a sub-optimal outcome. A systematic ethical breakdown is often the result not only of direct unethical behaviour, but also of good people letting bad things happen, such as objectives that, by their very nature encourage negative or harmful behaviour, or situations that incentivize turning a blind eye to immoral behaviour, or ignoring such behaviour because of personal distance from the actual wrongdoers (Bazerman & Tenbrunsel, 2011). Were the principles of the Overview Effect to be taught in business, finance, and economics programmes at even the undergraduate level, it could be a means to give future business leaders, financiers, and economists the tools they need to cultivate and maintain a climate of ethics and integrity in the global economy―as well as the local and national economies. For example, among pilots today, there may still be a bit of camaraderie, but one can hardly say there is the same sense of brotherhood amongst air travelers. Also known as the overview effect, the vastness of space elicits awe and facilitates a sense of oneness with humanity and the cosmos in the individual. One potential monkey wrench in the system, then, is that an experience intended to find common ground and can indeed be a shared experience can still lead to arguments in application back on earth. The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics Take the earth ball and hand a Styrofoam sphere (10 cm in diameter) to one volunteer. The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics. Simple transactional strategy is typically against an equilibrium outcome that involves goals outside profit-making, unless an outside force such as regulation or market power demands it. In the article, the name of author Johannes C. Eichstaedt was misspelled as Johannes C. Eiechstaedt. Step 5 At this point, you can make the shift from photos to model objects. The Hawthorne Effect And The Overestimation of Treatment Effectiveness Science struggles with psychology. The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution, Third Edition, opens with an impressive introduction, from the 3 rd edition foreword by astronaut Ron Garan to the original foreword from legendary space settlement advocate Gerard O’Neill.White explains how he became interested in the phenomenon he ultimately put a name to and which he particularly defines as follows: Individuals can reach a level of overall affluence past which their utility maximizing decision strategies change in a way that represents a modification in their underlying moral compass. In a time that stresses corporate responsibility to stakeholders, society, and the environment as a means to continue effective production indefinitely into the future, other things being equal, there is a need for business and economic leaders to have a moral code that incorporates integrity in those areas. The topic of ethics in economics, finance, and business certainly seems to be at the forefront of the news in recent times. Applying the Overview Effect to the Economy. Consumers do indeed respond to lapses in integrity in commerce, insofar as they know of such lapses and have the power to do something about it. Sometimes market forces can succeed in accomplishing that on their own. The Overview Effect, first conceptualized in 1987 by Frank White, is a cognitive shift that results, to put it in rather simple terms, from seeing the earth from space. Experienced in filming and editing, I have directed documentaries, interviews and live recordings for several web magazines. Start studying Psychology 1 - 5.05: Overview of Treatment Quiz. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). How to Achieve Brand Halo Effect. The Overview Effect, in that it represents a cognitive shift in awareness, is a means by which leaders in industry, the financial sector, and the economy as a whole can internalize the interconnectedness of humanity. In that way, ethical behaviour becomes part of an individual’s own code of conduct rather than a simple response to financial incentives. It is impossible to know what Columbus and his men experienced directly without having been there, but there is still much to learn vicariously through detailed study of his experiences. Sometimes this has a lasting effect on how the world is percieved, similarly to how some mystics describe their personal religious experiences. One solution that is just beginning is commercial space travel. Many if not most professional societies, for example, have codes of conduct and systems of integrity that they either promote among their members or require their members to follow. The present study considers the landscape of economic ethics and then considers the cognitive shift process known as the Overview Effect, recently popularized in National Geographic’s new television series, One Strange Rock, as a means to provide insight into improving the ethical environment in the economy and avoiding ethical breakdowns (Grebey, 2018). Astronauts who experience the effect refer to the earth in terms such as “a tiny, fragile ball of life, hanging in the void,” and remark that national boundaries vanish, conflicts that cause divisions are not visible, and the concept of unity of all mankind seems possible. Since the mid-1980s, I have been conducting research into the experience of astronauts when they view the Earth from space and in space, from Low Earth Orbit or on lunar missions. More sustainable, positive (i.e., good) change comes from within. In the economy, national borders are all but vanishing―echoing the experience of astronauts who experience the Overview Effect. A significant number of space travellers have reported seeing Earth from orbit or the moon as an awe-inducing experience that is deeply impactful. When cognitive shifts are widespread, society as a whole moves in a new direction. Primacy Effect Activities Activity 1: For this activity, you are going to do an experiment with your friends and family to see the primacy effect in action. Change can be good or bad. Rather, to benefit the most from it, learners ought to seek an experiential learning process, even if it is one based on observation of others. A large part of psychology is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues, but that's just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the impact of psychology. 280 0 obj <>stream Then it becomes “the right thing to do” rather than merely a means to profit. ��$�^�g`�.l2HlX���zn ��� Some approaches centre on incentivizing business leaders to engage in ethical behaviour, essentially making doing the right thing “good business” (Nash, 1990). Counselling Psychology. Such complexity creates barriers that separate people into classes: violating the law of Balance. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Received: May 24, 2018; Accepted: July 8, 2018; Published: July 11, 2018. Experienced in filming and editing, I have directed documentaries, interviews and live recordings for several web magazines. The Overview Effect argues that the world education systems are too complex, and too wasteful. Yes, there are competing businesses, competing nations, competing banks, and competing interests. The halo effect is a cognitive bias that occurs when an initial positive judgment about a person unconsciously colors the perception of the individual as a whole. Another approach is to use a “virtual reality” experience that takes the place of space travel. The overview effect is associated with feelings of awe, self-transcendence, and a change of perspective and identity that manifest themselves in taking steps toward protecting the fragile ecosystem. Actively learning from the experiences of those who have experienced the Overview Effect, for example, can help an individual to internalize the principles in a way that could promote inherently ethical professional practices. The Overview Effect Describes How Leaving Earth Changes Your Perspective (Psychology) Many things happen when you go to space. Sometimes popular demand can be useful, such as in spurring technological change that improves health quality rather than harming it. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Fortunately there are ways that the Overview Effect can still benefit those who have not travelled to space. First described in 1987, the overview effect describes a change in how astronauts feel as they hurtle through space. It requires a dissection of the material in an ongoing and analytical way with a goal of internalizing what is learning for the purpose of applying it to a larger context. That it is wrong to steal is so widely held that one is surely safe considering it a universal principle. The author explains this would help us all become emotionally capable individuals who could engage in conversations with people different from us, with empathy and respect. She spent five years researching the Overview Effect. It is a question very much worth asking. To work, though, it must be a viewpoint held by both sides. A number of astronauts have attributed deep feelings of awe and even self-transcendence to this experience (e.g., Linenger, 2000 ; Mitchell & Williams, 1996 ; White, 1987 ). Both the individual and the community are respected and given importance, thereby helping to avoid pendulum swings of extremism. The public, if it does indeed not quite trust the business world or economic leaders again, may very well be right. However, rather than multiple entities all following independent decision strategies, the Overview Effect would suggest that there should be some overlap and some commonality in decision strategy regarding the common good. The same can happen in industry when a business changes its company philosophy. As a young director, I specialize in documentary filmmaking and video journalism. They can look back at the Earth as they travel further away and see it growing increasingly smaller. STRENGTHS Control – lab experiments have a high degree of control over the environment & other extraneous variables which means that the researcher can accurately assess the effects of the I.V, so it has higher internal validity. In the case of different worlds, however, a “bridge” is needed due to the presence of independent decision strategies (Johnson & Walker, 2018). For example, the question of whether or not the American government should actually have bailed out banks and the auto industry, i.e., the “too big to fail” question, still persists. Scarcely a business or financial decision, let alone a major economic decision can be made that in some way does not impact other people, either positive or negative. Yet another approach is to seek an “overview analogue” experience that generates a similar cognitive shift. Today both academia and the professional world, in part due to public demand, are seeking new ways to solve old problems stemming from ethical considerations. The Overview Effect, in that it represents a cognitive shift resulting in a different view of humanity, the interconnectivity of mankind, and responsibility to others, provides a novel perspective to the situation of ethics in business, the global financial sector, and the economy as a whole. Different societies have different sources for their code of conduct that individuals on average are expected to follow. KEYWORDS. The unity, or universal-impressions indeed have something similar with the … Could the “overview effect” calm political polarization? Websites such as EBay and DHGate have brought participation in the global marketplace to a much wider array of people around the world, even in third-world and developing countries. It is named after New Zealand political scientist James Robert Flynn, its discoverer. Sociologists are interested in the institutions and cultures that influence how people behave. January 15, 2021 5:00 pm In a special edition of the science journal Futures, Sanjoy Som considers the future evolution of the Earth through investigating the longevity of humanity. Both academia and the professional world, in part due to public demand, are seeking new ways to solve old problems stemming from ethical considerations. It does, however, require effort in learning―particularly given the current limitations of space travel. Fortunately experiences that are both difficult and enjoyable can spur psychological growth on their own (Myasnikov & Zamaletdinov, 1996; Suedfeld, 2005; Cornum, Matthews, & Seligman, 2011; Roepke, 2013, 2015). Psychology became both a thriving profession of practitioners and a scientific discipline that investigated all aspects of human social behaviour, child development, and individual differences, as well as the areas of animal psychology, sensation, perception, memory, and learning. Another remaining option is to learn from the experiences of others. Since the mid-1980s, I have been conducting research into the experience of astronauts when they view the Earth from space and in space, from Low Earth Orbit or on lunar missions. The overview effect: space exploration and human evolution User Review - Not Available - Book Verdict. However, the risk aspect of many activities that lead to an overview analogue experience are such that they still account for a relatively small segment of the population, even in the business world or high finance where one might find driven people who are not so risk-averse and are willing to take calculated risks for a specific purpose. That surely would be a subject of some debate. Understanding the different factors that can impact the human mind and behavior 3. •Overview Effect. The primacy effect is an ability to summon up information at the initial level. The overview effect, as the experience is called, refers to a profound reaction to viewing the earth from outside its atmosphere White (1987). •Earth. Rather, this paper takes that as a given and seeks to provide insight into what leaders in business and the economy can do to be both competitive and responsible in the present and future. [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 3(2) of Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice (see record 2016-27827-004). As such, it has also become an influential concept in the field of sustainability, which promotes, in an ecological sense, humans contributing to indefinite continuation of environmental diversity and productivity. This paper makes a case for teaching emotional regulation in schools and looking at the Earth from space. In psychology, this is known as the cocktail party effect. What about in economics and finance programmes? Memory. Could the overview effect calm political polarization? The promotion of ethical practices in business and the economy is something that requires constant effort. In that way, ethical behaviour becomes part of an individual’s own code of conduct rather than a simple response to financial incentives and therefore ideally helps render the individual more impervious to temptations of incentivized ethical breakdown. Introduction to the Process and Types of Memory. Psychologists instead focus on situational variables that affect social behavior. In business, it is described as the tendency of the hiring manager or the human resource department or the interviewer to rely on the cues that he sees at the initial stage for garn… •Blue Marble. Some approaches focus on financial and regulatory incentives. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City, University of London) Abstract. He found that, with great consistency, this experience profoundly affects space travelers’ worldviews—their perceptions of themselves and our planet, and our understanding of the future. The halo effect is a cognitive bias that occurs when an initial positive judgment about a person unconsciously colors the perception of the individual as a whole. h�bbd```b``� For example, in Pavlov's experiment, if a dog is conditioned to salivated to the sound of a bell, it may later salivate to a higher pitched bell. How can the Overview Effect and its principles be applied to the economy in a way that not only raises meaningful awareness, but results in driven, purpose-filled action when the Overview Effect appears to be the exclusive property of space travelers? %PDF-1.7 %���� The classic “vote with your feet” approach is for consumers to reduce purchase of products provided by companies deemed to have business ethics problems, and consumers have indeed demonstrated a willingness to do just that (Creyer, 1997). Experiential learning can take place through observation. Responsibility to others grows in importance, while profit is sought in light of that responsibility. VROE recreate aspects of the Overview Effect using VR, workshops, guided meditation and biofeedback so that the feelings of … In contrast to the past, in which commerce was an extension of national power, commerce has transformed into a world of multinational collaboration with common goals. 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